Guardianship Attorneys in Sarasota
Providing Comprehensive Estate Planning Services since 1983
For persons who, due to physical or mental disabilities, are unable to responsibly attend to their financial or healthcare matters, the law provides a safety net to protect them. This system is referred to as guardianship. With roots going back to medieval times, the judicial guardianship system is designed to assure court supervision of the welfare of vulnerable individuals.
Advocates in Aging, the kind of guardianship proceeding we most often encounter concerns
addressing the needs of someone who, due to some physical or psychological
challenge, needs court intervention to protect them. There are a variety
of types of "guardianships" depending on the situation. For
example, parents of minor children are considered "natural"
guardians of their children. Children involved in a legal proceeding may
have a "guardian ad litem" appointed to protect their interests,
and, for persons with mental health issues, a "guardian ad litem"
may be appointed to make treatment decisions for them.
Does Guardianship Override Power of Attorney
Unless the terms of the guardianship are limited to certain areas, the answer is generally yes, a guardianship overrides power of attorney. The person who successfully petitions for guardianship will have the authority over the person needing protection and the power of attorney will no longer have any effect.
Often, a guardianship intervention is required when the person has not signed a power of attorney or healthcare directive appointing someone to take care of their affairs. However, guardianship may also be required where the individual appointed as power of attorney or healthcare agent procured the authority improperly or is misusing that authority. This becomes especially important in cases where the individual was suffering from some cognitive challenge such as dementia and can't monitor what the agent is doing.
It is also important to bear in mind that even if an individual has signed a power of attorney or healthcare document, if they now refuse to cooperate with the agent, a guardianship may still be required. This often comes as a shock to families who took the preventative steps of securing the recommended power of attorney and now find that it can't be used to override the person's directions. For example, often, a person with dementia will strenuously resist a nursing home placement. The family expects that they can simply use the authority of the power of attorney to force the placement. This, to their chagrin, is not the case. When a person signs a power or attorney, they have not given up their right to make their own choices. Unless and until a court removes that person's legal right to make decisions, he or she retains those rights. If the person is experiencing the effects of dementia, for example, they may be unable to understand that they are no longer making appropriate or safe decisions. In those cases, guardianship may be necessary.
How Does a Guardian Get Appointed?
The first step in having a guardian appointed for a vulnerable person is the determination of whether and in what respects they are incapacitated. The proponent of the guardianship begins the process by filing a petition with the court requesting that an individual’s capacity be determined by the court. The petition must set forth the basis for suspecting that the person's capacity is questionable. For example, the person is not paying their bills, is neglecting a serious medical need, or is unable to protect themselves from scam artists. An interesting aspect of the filing of a petition to determine incapacity is that unless the court rules otherwise, the mere filing of the petition suspends all powers of attorney (although healthcare powers remain intact unless taken away).
When the petition to determine incapacity is filed, the court does two things: First, in order to safeguard the vulnerable person's right to due process, he or she may be entitled to notice of and ability to attend all legal proceedings related to the guardianship. In addition, the vulnerable person must obtain representation by a guardianship attorney in Sarasota. The court will generally appoint an attorney to represent the individual. The person can substitute their own lawyer if they choose to. Secondly, the court will appoint a committee of three persons who must go visit the person alleged to be incapacitated, interview them, and report back to the court. The committee consists of a psychiatrist or physician, and the others are generally therapists, gerontologists, nurses, or social workers.
The examining committee is required to identify from a pre-established set of criteria what functions the person is unable to perform. Among these are handling finances and making informed decisions about their healthcare, residence, social contacts, etc. Then, the committee reports on what legal rights the individual is unable to perform such as the right to decide where to live, how to spend money, to gift money, or to enter into a contract. If the court finds that the person indeed lacks the capacity to exercise the rights identified by the committee, the court literally removes the rights of the person. This loss of rights is often permanent, although they can later be restored upon a finding that the person has regained the lost abilities and the court restores legal capacity.
Appointment of a guardian can materially limit the rights and privileges of the protected individual in areas such as:
- Choosing residence
- Providing informed consent to medical treatment
- Making end-of-life decisions
- Making property transactions
- Obtaining a driver’s license
- Owning, possessing, or carrying a firearm
- Filing or defending lawsuits
Once the court takes a person's rights away, it will then transfer those rights to a guardian. For example, looking at the preceding list, most of those rights would be transferred to the guardian. However, certain personal rights, such as marriage, voting, or driving, are not delegable to the guardian.
The court will appoint a qualified individual to act as guardian. Often, this is a family member or friend. However, if there is more than one person vying for appointment, especially in a family conflict situation, the court may appoint an independent, professional fiduciary.
Our law firm routinely works with seniors and their loved ones to determine the best course of action, file the required paperwork, and represent them in proceedings with the appropriate administrative agencies. We also work with the guardian to assure their compliance with court required accounting and other reports.
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